What Is Subliminal Perception?
How Does Subliminal Perception Apply to Marketing?
Also Known As: Subliminal stimuli, subliminal messaging, subliminal advertising
Subliminal perception is any information you receive from your senses that you are not consciously aware of happening.
How Effective is Subliminal Advertising?
Applications of subliminal stimuli often base themselves on the persuasiveness of the message. Importantly, research on action priming has shown that subliminal stimuli can trigger only actions a receiver of the message plans to perform anyway.
However, consensus of this finding remains unsubstantiated by other research. Most actions can be triggered subliminally only if the person already has the potential to perform a specific action.
The following sections have more information on specific studies which investigate the effectiveness of subliminal stimuli. 
Subliminal Messaging and Television
Some studies have looked at the efficacy of subliminal messaging in television. Subliminal messages produce only one-tenth of the effects of detected messages and the findings related the effects of subliminal messaging were relatively ambiguous.
Also, participants’ ratings of positive response to commercials are not affected by subliminal messages in the commercials. 
Karremans suggests that subliminal messages have an effect when the messages are goal-relevant.  Subliminally priming a brand name of a soft drink (Lipton Ice) made those who were thirsty want the Lipton Ice. However, those who were not thirsty were not influenced by the subliminal messages. 
Karremans did a study assessing whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink would affect a person's choice of drink, and whether this effect is caused by the individual's feelings of being thirsty. 
In another study, participant's ratings of thirst were higher after viewing an episode of The Simpsons that contained single frames of the word "thirsty" or of a picture of a Coca-Cola can. 
Some studies have shown greater effects of subliminal messaging with as high as 80% of participants showing a preference for a particular rum when subliminally primed by the name placed in an ad backward. 
Many authors have continued to argue for the effectiveness of subliminal cues in changing consumption behavior, citing environmental cues as a main culprit of behavior change. 
Authors who support this line of reasoning cite findings such as the research that showed slow-paced music in a supermarket was associated with more sales and customers moving at a slower pace. 
Findings such as these support the notion that external cues can affect behavior, although the stimulus may not fit into a strict definition of subliminal stimuli because although the music may not be attended to or consciously affecting the customers, they are certainly able to perceive it.
Subliminal messaging is prohibited in advertising in the United Kingdom. 
See Also: priming, pre-attentive processing
- "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, sublīmis". www.perseus.tufts.edu. line feed character in |title= at position 35 (help)
- Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Klinger, Mark R. (June 1992). "Is the unconscious smart or dumb?". American Psychologist. 47 (6): 761–765. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.761. PMID 1616173.
- Brooks, S.J.; Savov V; Allzén E; Benedict C; Fredriksson R; Schiöth HB. (February 2012). "Exposure to subliminal arousing stimuli induces robust activation in the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, insular cortex and primary visual cortex: a systematic meta-analysis of fMRI studies". NeuroImage. 59 (3): 2962–2973. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.077. PMID 22001789.
- Schlaghecken, F.; Eimer, M. (2004). "Subliminal stimuli can bias 'free' choices between response alternatives". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 11 (3): 463–468. doi:10.3758/bf03196596.
- van Gaal, S; de Lange, FP; Cohen, MX (2012). "The role of consciousness in cognitive control and decision making". Front Hum Neurosci. 6: 121. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00121. PMC 3345871. PMID 22586386.
- Zeman, A. (2001). "Consciousness". Brain. 124 (Pt 7): 1263–1289. doi:10.1093/brain/124.7.1263. PMID 11408323.
- Chessman, Jim; Merikle, Philip M. (1984). "Priming with and without awareness". Perception and Psychophysics. 36 (4): 387–395. doi:10.3758/bf03202793.
- Reingold, Eyal M.; Merikle, Philip M. (1988). "Direct and indirect measures to study perceptions without awareness". Perception and Psychophysics. 44 (6): 563–575. doi:10.3758/bf03207490.
- Greenwald, Anthony G.; Klinger, Mark R.; Schuh, Eric S. (1995). "Activation by marginally Perceptible ("Subliminal") Stimuli: Dissociation of Unconscious From Conscious Cognition". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 124 (1): 22–42. doi:10.1037/0096-3418.104.22.168. PMID 7897340.
- Krosnick, J. A.; Betz, A. L.; Jussim, L. J.; Lynn, A. R. (1992). "Subliminal Conditioning of Attitudes". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 18 (2): 152–162. doi:10.1177/0146167292182006.
- Williams, L. M.; Liddell, B. J.; Kemp, A. H.; Bryant, R. A.; Meares, R. A.; Peduto, A. S.; Gordon, E. (2006). "Amygdala–prefrontal dissociation of subliminal and supraliminal fear". Human Brain Mapping. 27 (8): 652–661. doi:10.1002/hbm.20208. PMID 16281289.
- Baldwin, M.; Carrell, D. F.; Lopez, D. F. (1990). "Priming relationship schemas: My advisor and the pope are watching me from the back of my mind" (Submitted manuscript). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 26 (5): 435–454. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(90)90068-W.
- Lee, Su Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee; An, Suk Kyoon (February 2011). "Differential priming effect for subliminal fear and disgust facial expressions". Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 2. 73 (2): 473–481. doi:10.3758/s13414-010-0032-3.
- Ibáñez, Agustin; Hurtado, Esteban; Lobos, Alejandro; Escobar, Josefina; Trujillo, Natalia; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Manes, Facundo; Decety, Jean (29 June 2011). "Subliminal presentation of other faces (but not own face) primes behavioral and evoked cortical processing of empathy for pain". Brain Research. 1398: 72–85. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.05.014. PMID 21624566.
- Yang, Zixu; Tong, Eddie M. W. (2010). "The Effects of Subliminal Anger and Sadness Primes on Agency Appraisals". Emotion. 10 (6): 915–922. doi:10.1037/a0020306.
- Gillath, Omri; Mikulincer, Mario; Birnbaum, Gurit E.; Shaver, Phillip R. (May 2007). "Does subliminal exposure to sexual stimuli have the same effects on men women?" (Submitted manuscript). Journal of Sex Research. 2. 44 (2): 111–121. doi:10.1080/00224490701263579.
- Mayer, Birgit; Merckelbach, Harald (10 December 1998). "Do subliminal priming effects on emotion have clinical potential?". Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 12 (2): 217–229. doi:10.1080/10615809908248330.
- Vorberg, D.; Mattler, U.; Heinecke, A.; Schmidt, T.; Schwarzbach, J. (2003). "Different time courses for visual perception and action priming". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 100 (10): 6275–6280. doi:10.1073/pnas.0931489100. PMC 156362.
- Taylor, Frank W. R. (March 1953). "The discrimination of subliminal visual stimuli". Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1. 7: 12–20. doi:10.1037/h0083570.
- Kouider, S; Dehaene, S (May 2007). "Levels of processing during non-conscious perception: a critical review of visual masking". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 362 (1481): 857–75. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2093. PMC 2430002. PMID 17403642.
- Abrams, R. L.; Greenwald, A. G. (2000). "Parts outweigh the whole (word) in unconscious analysis of meaning". Psychological Science. 11 (2): 118–124. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00226.
- Breitmeyer, B.G.; Ogmen, H. (2007). "Visual Masking". Scholarpedia. 2 (7): 3330. doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.3330.
- Egermann, Hauke; Kopiez, Reinhard; Reuter, Christoph (2007). "Is there an effect of subliminal messages in music on choice behavior?". Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis go. 4 (2): 29–64.
- Comparison of the effects of auditory subliminal stimulation and rational-emotive therapy, separately and combined, on self-concept. Möller AT, Kotzé HF, Sieberhagen KJ. Department of Psychology, University of Stellenbosch, RSA.
- Pratkanis, A. R. (1992). "The cargo-cult science of subliminal persuasion". Skeptical Inquirer. 16: 260–272.
- Greenwald, A.G.; E. R. Spangenberg; A. R. Pratkanis; J. Eskenazi (1991). "Doubleblind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes". Psychological Science. 2 (2): 119–122. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1991.tb00112.x.
- Auday, B.C.; J. L. Mellett; P. M. Williams (1991). "Self-improvement Using Subliminal Selfhelp Audiotapes: Consumer Benefit or Consumer Fraud?". Psychological Science: Paper presented at the meeting of Western Psychological Association, San Francisco, CAlif., April.
- Moore, T.E. (1995). "Subliminal self-help auditory tapes: An empirical test of perceptual consequences". Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 27 (1): 9–20. doi:10.1037/008-400X.27.1.9.
- Smith, Kirk H.; Rogers, Martha (1994). "Effectiveness of subliminal messages in television commercials: Two experiments". Journal of Applied Psychology. 79 (6): 866–874. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.866.
- Karremans, J.; Stroebe, W.; Claus, J. (2006). "Beyond Vicary's fantasies: the impact of subliminal priming and brand choice☆". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 42 (6): 792–798. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.12.002.
- Cooper, Joel; Cooper, Grant (2002). "Subliminal motivation: A story revisited". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 32 (11): 2213–2227. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb01860.x.
- Key, W.B. (1973), Subliminal seduction: Ad media's manipulation of a not so innocent America, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, ISBN 978-0-13-859090-1
- Dijksterhuis, Ap; Smith, Pamela K.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Wigboldus, Daniel H.J. (2005). "The unconscious consumer: Effects of environment on consumer behavior" (Full text). Journal of Consumer Psychology. 15 (3): 193–202. doi:10.1207/s15327663jcp1503_3.
- Milliman, Ronald E. (1982). "Using background music to effect the behavior of supermarket shoppers". Journal of Marketing. 46 (3): 86–91. doi:10.2307/1251706. JSTOR 1251706.
- "Section 3. Misleading-advertising". BCAP Code. Committees on Advertising Practice (CAP). 2013. Retrieved 6 January2014. "No advertisement may use images of very brief duration, or any other technique that is likely to influence consumers, without their being fully aware of what has been done."
This is a stub article and will be updated. This information is provided under the Wikipedia Creative Common License.