The right positioning strategy at the right time can help a brand build a powerful image in the mind of consumer(s). From time to time, the current positioning strategy fails to resonate.
This could be due to new market entrants, changed customer preferences, structural change within the target market (such as ageing, segment creep) or simply that customers have forgotten about a brand and its position. When this happens, the company may need to consider a number of options:
* Strengthen current positioning: reinforce the concepts of features that led to customers adopting a favourable view in the first instance
* Establish a new position: look for suitable niches where customers are underserviced and occupy that space
* Reposition (or de-position): change the way customers think about the product or brand, usually through comparative advertising
Repositioning involves a deliberate attempt to alter the way that consumers view a product or brand.
Repositioning can be a high risk strategy, but sometimes there are few alternatives.
Fishbein and Rosenberg's attitude models indicate that it is possible for a business to influence and change the positioning of the brand by manipulating various factors that will affect a consumer's attitude.
Research on persons' attitudes suggests that a brand's position in a prospective consumer's mind is likely to be determined by the "combined total of a number of product characteristics such as the price, quality, durability, reliability, colour, and flavour". T
he consumer places important weights on each of these product characteristics and it can be possible by using things such as promotional efforts to realign the weights of price, quality, durability, reliability, colour and flavour of which can then help adjust the position of a brand in the mind of the prospective consumer.
Companies engaging in repositioning can choose to downplay some points of difference and emphasise others.
Repositioning a Startup
In volatile markets, it can be necessary – even urgent – to reposition an entire company, rather than just a product line or brand.
When Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley suddenly shifted from investment to commercial banks, for example, the expectations of investors, employees, clients and regulators all needed to shift, and each company needed to influence how these perceptions changed. Doing so involves repositioning the entire firm.
This is especially true of small and medium-sized firms, many of which often lack strong brands for individual product lines. In a prolonged recession, business approaches that were effective during healthy economies often become ineffective and it becomes necessary to change a firm's positioning.
Upscale restaurants, for example, which previously flourished on expense account dinners and corporate events, may for the first time need to stress value as a sale tool.
Repositioning a company involves more than a marketing challenge. It involves making hard decisions about how a market is shifting and how a firm's competitors will react. Often these decisions must be made without the benefit of sufficient information, simply because the definition of "volatility" is that change becomes difficult or impossible to predict.
- Kuehlwein, JP; Schaefer, Wolfgang (2015). Rethinking Prestige Branding - Secrets of the Ueber-Brands. London: Kogan Page. pp. 15–16, 115–116. ISBN 978-0749470036.
- Jump up to:a b Andrei, P; Ecaterina, B, R; Ionut, T. C (2010). "Does Positioning Have a Place in the Minds of our Students?". Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series.
- Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Maggard, John P. (1976-01-01). "Positioning Revisited". Journal of Marketing. 40 (1): 63–66. doi:10.2307/1250678. JSTOR 1250678.
- Sandra Bell (March 29, 2008). International Brand Management of Chinese Companies: Case Studies on the Chinese Household Appliances and Consumer Electronics Industry Entering US and Western European Markets. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 26. ISBN 978-3-7908-2030-0.
- David Ogilvy (September 11, 2013). Ogilvy on Advertising. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. PT17. ISBN 978-0-8041-7005-5.
- Jack Trout (1969). "Positioning" is a game people play in today's me-too market place". Industrial Marketing: 51–55.
- Al Ries; Jack Trout (2001). Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. McGraw Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-137358-6.
- marketing. 2011. p. 147.
- Schwarzkopf, S., "Turning Trade Marks into Brands: how Advertising Agencies Created Brands in the Global Market Place, 1900-1930" CGR Working Paper, Queen Mary University, School of Business and Management Centre for Globalization Research London, 18 August 2008
- Cano, C., "The Recent Evolution of Market Segmentation Concepts and Thoughts Primarily by Marketing Academics," in E. Shaw (ed) The Romance of Marketing History,Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM), Boca Ranton, FL, AHRIM, 2003
- T. Ellson (March 16, 2004). Culture and Positioning as Determinants of Strategy: Personality and the Business Organization. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-230-50981-8.
- Stephen R. Fox (1984). The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators. University of Illinois Press. p. 324. ISBN 978-0-252-06659-7.
- Urde, M. and Koch, C., "Market and brand-oriented schools of positioning", Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23, no. 7, 2014, pp 478-490
- Ogilvy, D., Confessions of an Advertising Man, 1963
- David Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising, Vintage Books, (1983), 1985
- Ogilvy, D, "The Image and the brand: a new approach to creative operations," Speech given at AAAA Luncheon in Chicago, 4 October 4, 1955 and cited in Schwarzkopf, S., "Turning Trade Marks into Brands: how Advertising Agencies Created Brands in the Global Market Place, 1900-1930" CGR Working Paper, Queen Mary University, London, 18 August 2008
- Jump up to:a b David Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising, (1983) Vintage Books, 1985, p. 12
- Cano, C., "The Recent Evolution of Market Segmentation Concepts and Thoughts Primarily by Marketing Academics," in E. Shaw (ed.), The Romance of Marketing History: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM), Boca Ranton, FL: AHRIM, 2003, p.18
- Schwarzkopf, S., Turning Trade Marks into Brands: how Advertising Agencies Created Brands in the Global Market Place, 1900-1930, CGR Working Paper, Queen Mary University, London, 18 August 2008, p. 22
- Cano, C., "The Recent Evolution of Market Segmentation Concepts and Thoughts Primarily by Marketing Academics," in E. Shaw (ed.), The Romance of Marketing History: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM), Boca Ranton, FL: AHRIM, 2003, pp 16-18
- Enis, B. and Cox,K., Marketing classics: a selection of influential articles, Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 1969
- Marc de Swaan Aron (October 3, 2011). "How Brands Were Born: A Brief History of Modern Marketing". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Al Ries; Jack Trout (January 3, 2001). Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-07-170587-5.
- "A Simple Definition of Brand Positioning". The Branding Journal. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
- "Brand Positioning Strategy". Equibrand Consulting. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
- Cunningham, Andy (October 17, 2017). Get to Aha! Discover Your Positioning DNA and Dominate Your Competition. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-1-260-03120-1.
- Moutinho, L., "Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning and Strategic Marketing," Chapter 5 in Strategic Management in Tourism, Moutinho, L. (ed), CAB International, 2000, pp. 121–166
- Marketing Insider, "Evaluating Market Segments", Online: https://marketing-insider.eu/marketing-explained/part-i-defining-marketing-and-the-marketing-process/market-targeting/
- Business Dictionary, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/positioning.html
- Mulvey, Michael (January 2009). "Experiential positioning: Strategic differentiation of customer-brand relationships". Innovative Marketing. 5 – via ResearchGate.
- Jump up to:a b Geoffrey Moore (1991). Crossing the Chasm. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 978-0887305191.
- Volvo Creative Brief, in Rossiter, J. and Percy, L., Advertising Communications and Promotion Management, N.Y., McGraw-Hill, 1997, p. 159
- Charles Lamb (2012). Essentials of Marketing (7e ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. pp. 279–82. ISBN 978-0-538-47834-2.
- Jump up to:a b c d Ostasevičiūtė, R; Šliburytė, L (February 2008). "Theoretical Aspects of Product Positioning in the Market". Engineering Economics.
- Rogers, S.C., Marketing Strategies, Tactics, and Techniques: A Handbook for Practitioners, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001, pp 90-92; Belch, G., Belch, M.A, Kerr, G. and Powell, I., Advertising and Promotion Management: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective, McGraw-Hill, Sydney, Australia, 2009, pp 205-206
- Kaschny, Martin (2018). Innovation and Transformation. Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-319-78524-0.
- Hoffman, D.L. and Franke, G.R., "Correspondence analysis: graphical representation of categorical data in marketing research," Journal of Marketing Research, 23, 1986, pp 213–227
- Phipps, A., Carroll, J.D. and Wind, Y.J., "Overlapping Clustering: A New Method for Product Positioning," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 3 1981, pp. 310-317
- Wena, C.H. and Chen, W.Y., "Using multiple correspondence cluster analysis to map the competitive position of airlines", Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2011, pp 302–304
- Paul E. Green and Abba M. Krieger Conjoint analysis with product-positioning applications Chapter 10 in Handbook in Operations Research and Management Science, Vol. 5 [Marketing], Eliashberg,j. and Lilien, G.L. (eds), Elsevier, 1993 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-0507(05)80023-4, pp 467–515
- Moutinho, L., "Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning and Strategic Marketing," Chapter 5 in Strategic Management in Tourism, Moutinho, L. (ed), CAB International, 2000, pp 121-166
- Mazanec, J.A., "Positioning analysis with self-organizing maps: An exploratory study on luxury hotels", The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1995, pp 80-95
- Sair, S. A (2014). "Consumer Psyche and Positioning Strategies". Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences.
- Blythe, J., Key Concepts in Marketing, Sage, 2009, p. 171
- Strydom, J., Introduction to Marketing, Juta and Company, 2005. pp 77-78
- Jump up to:a b Ray, Michael L. (1973-01-01). "A Decision Sequence Analysis of Developments in Marketing Communication". Journal of Marketing. 37 (1): 29–38. doi:10.2307/1250772. JSTOR 1250772.
This information is provided under the Wikipedia Creative Common License. More updates coming soon.
Click here to learn more about our positioning services.
Want to Learn The 14 Principles Used to Double Decibite’s Annualized Revenue in 6 Months?
Sign up below to join our product marketing newsletter. You'll get the tactics & strategies we use to help companies grow from idea to scale.